CNRS and INRAE are strengthening their scientific collaboration to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals
PRESS RELEASE – Antoine Petit, Chairman and CEO of the CNRS, and Philippe Mauguin, Chairman and CEO of the INRAE, recently signed a new five-year framework agreement to underline the commitment of their research organizations to work even more closely together. In line with recent developments in the French higher education and research system, this new agreement is fully coherent with the science and innovation strategies of the two institutions at national level, notably through site policies, and at international level. In this way, as natural long-term partners, the two institutions have committed to stepping up the joint production and promotion of high-level scientific knowledge to contribute to the achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In view of ever-increasing expectations of research,
Advances in disease control and resistance breeding in agricultural crops.
The AG for disease control and resistance breeding in cereals, legumes and oilseed rape (JKI) Society for Plant Breeding (GPZ) - AG for resistance breeding and the German Phytomedical Society (DPG) invite you to the conference
Advances in disease control and resistance breeding in agricultural crops
from April 11 to 12, 2022 at the Kolping House in Fulda.
A face-to-face event is planned under the currently valid statutory Corona regulation.
However, if this is not possible, an online event will take place as an alternative.
Prof. Dr. Thomas Miedaner / Lore Handt
University of Hohenheim (720)
State Seed Breeding Institute
Macromolecular characterization of disease resistant red wine varieties (PIWI)
AIM: Fungal Resistant (PIWI) are disease resistant Vitis vinifera interspecific hybrid varieties that are receiving increasing attention for ability to ripen in cool climates and their resistance to grapevine fungal diseases. Wines produced from these varieties have not been characterized, especially regarding their macromolecular composition. This study characterized and quantified colloid-forming molecules (proteins, polysaccharides and phenolics) of red PIWI wines produced in the UK. (more…)
Diversity buffers winegrowing regions from climate change losses
Increasing diversity within crops may be a powerful way to reduce agricultural declines from climate change. As such, it has garnered increasing attention, especially in documenting within-crop diversity through different cultivars or wild relatives. Yet, there are few tests of whether this diversity can mitigate losses with warming. Here, using European (predominantly French) databases to forecast winegrape phenology, we test if shifting cultivars changes predictions of future growing regions. We find that cultivar diversity halved potential losses of winegrowing regions under a 2 °C warming scenario and could reduce losses by a third if warming reaches 4 °C. Thus, diversity—if adopted by growers locally—can mitigate agricultural losses, but its effectiveness will depend on global decisions regarding future emissions.
In my vision Piwis represents the natural complement to a wide-angle comprehension at wineyard's health trouble and its year by year preservation
Piwis varieties give answers to annual-cycle diseases, pruning technique is oriented to prevent long-term health problems, together, they are the keys for future's sustainable vineyards.
Electrochemical measurements in wine, benchmark for quality?
in collaboration with
The growth of the plants depends on various environmental parameters such as light and water, but above all on the soil. Different prerequisites thus shape the quality of all products that humans consume by utilizing the chemically stored energy to maintain their bodily functions.
While conventional food tests only provide isolated information about ingredients or caloric content, the electrochemical measurement also records the portion in the food that is responsible for the structural work (the so-called. Entropy share) can deliver.
From a physical point of view, life processes can be seen as a chain of Redox reactions describe.
Derived from the main principles of thermodynamics, it can be shown that the quality of food is above that Redox potential can be represented:
The lower this value, the higher the quality and the neutralization Free radicals.
Two new joint research projects to curb the golden yellowing of the vine
On the occasion of the handover of the funding notices for two new joint research projects to curb the golden yellow yellowing of the vine (Flavescence dorée = phytoplasmosis), which are coordinated by the vine protectors and vine breeders of the Julius Kühn Institute at the Geilweilerhof site in Siebeldingen, the JKI published the following homepage announcement.
Federal Minister Klöckner hands over funding notices for new JKI research projects on quarantine diseases in vines and fruit
On Monday (April 12th, 21st), Federal Minister of Agriculture Julia Klöckner handed over the grant notices from her ministry for the two new research projects "VectoScreen" and "PhytoMo" via video. In the am Julius Kühn Institute (JKI) in Siebeldingen The projects worked on are about the diagnosis of flavescence dorée, in English golden yellow, and the monitoring of the pathogen causing this vine disease and the insects that transmit it. The disease is caused by a bacterium without a cell wall, a so-called phytoplasm. This quarantine pest organism, which is worth fighting, or its vector insect, the American vine leafhopper, are finding better and better conditions in local wine regions. Diseased plants and pathogens are subject to transport bans within the EU and other measures that help prevent the introduction and spread of quarantine pathogens. Both projects are funded by the BMEL as part of the tender "Innovations to avoid the introduction and spread of regulated and new harmful organisms in plants".
High-resolution 3D phenotyping of the root system of the grapevine using X-ray computed tomography
The Julius Kühn Institute and the University of Nottingham in Great Britain examined the roots of young potted vines of 'Calardis Musqué', 'Villard Blanc' and V3125 ('Schiava Grossa' x 'Riesling'). Non-invasive X-ray micro-computed tomography (X-ray µCT) methods were used to study the phenotypic variation of the complex three-dimensional (3D) architecture of vine roots as a function of genotype and soil. Lignified cuttings were cultivated in polypropylene columns filled with two different types of soil, clayey loam and sandy loam, for 6 weeks.
It could be shown that the individual root parameters such as B. Root length and number of side roots are clearly specific to the grape variety, i.e. genetically determined, and are less dependent on the type of soil.
Which sensory style of PIWI wines promises success?
DLR Rheinpfalz, Institute for Viticulture and Oenology, Marc Weber, Prof. Dr. Ulrich Fischer German Wine Institute, Ole Kohlmann
On the occasion of the 74th Viticulture Days 2021
Actually, they all have trumps in their hands, the mushroom-resistant grape varieties, or PIWIs for short. It has been proven that significantly reduced plant protection is required in order to harvest ripe and healthy grapes, reduced crossings protect the soil structure and lower workload and costs for plant protection, be it ecological or conventional, save the winemaker's budget. So it is surprising why in the Palatinate only 3.2 % of the vineyard area is planted with PIWIs, of which the regent alone denies 2.2%. In Rhineland-Palatinate, there are only 2.9% of the vineyard area, which is surprising, because they are predestined for steep and terraced locations where crop protection is more labor-intensive and cost-intensive. If you ask the winemakers about their reluctance to plant PIWIs, they complain about a lack of interest on the part of consumers and trading companies, while the wineries and consumers complain about a limited supply. In order to resolve this contradiction, a sub-area of the nationwide VITIFIT project of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture is concerned with improving the style of the wines made from PIWI grape varieties and their chances of success in marketing.
Conclusion: In terms of their quality potential, wines made from PiWi grape varieties are on par with the standard grape varieties. However, there is still a lack of experience as to how they can best be expanded. Consumer preferences and the derived preferred or rejected sensory attributes help here. For the future, the question arises whether PIWI wines should be good sensory “copies” of the styles of the standard grape varieties or whether they should show an independent, different, but recognizable profile as new and different.
NOVISYS - New grape varieties with minimal cut in the trellis
The most important facts from research and practice
funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research
Extract on page 20:
It is no longer a secret that new grape varieties, the PIWIs, can be used to produce high-quality wines. This could also be shown in the framework of the novisys project for wines from the minimal cut in the trellis. The level of yield, the state of health of the grapes and the correct time of harvest are decisive for the quality and type of wine. Excessive yields and harvesting too early in particular quickly lead to unripe, thin and bitter wines with minimal pruning in the trellis, which are associated with low color in red wines. For this reason, a targeted reduction in yield (BBCH scale: 75) in the first few years of the conversion is strongly recommended. In addition, the smaller berries in the minimal cut in the trellis lead to an increased proportion of berry skin and thus to a higher berry skin / pulp ratio.
Wines from the minimal cut in the trellis benefit from this. With a moderate yield level and harvest time adapted to the ripeness, aromatic, fragrant and slim white wines as well as tannin-rich and color-intensive red wines can be produced in the new cultivation system.
Novisys research project Project leader: Prof. Dr. Reinhard Töpfer
Julius Kühn Institute
Federal Research Institute for Cultivated Plants (JKI) Institute for Vine Breeding Geilweilerhof Geilweilerhof
Sensor-based detection of leaf roll sickness on grapevines directly in the field
Sensor-based detection of leaf roll sickness on grapevines directly in the field
The leaf roll disease of the grapevine is a viral disease that spreads worldwide and causes great economic damage. Since the disease cannot be treated directly in the field up to now, prevention is crucial in virus management: Infested sticks must be recognized and cleared early on. However, many plants develop only mild symptoms or no symptoms. The JKI has tested a sensor-based early detection system for leaf roll disease in the field with the Fraunhofer Institute IFF, the Geisenheim University and the University of Hohenheim. With hyperspectral cameras and an adapted phenotyping pipeline, infected vines can be detected earlier than before and suitable measures can then be initiated.
Source: Julius Kühn Institute
read more (english)